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Diabetes Mellitus -everything that you need to know!

What is diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects high blood sugar or glucose in the bloodstream of our body from the food we eat. This blood sugar gives energy to our body and rest are stored up in the cells for later use. The pancreas releases the hormone insulin which transports the glucose from the blood to the cell and reduces the blood glucose level and increases the metabolism of glucose in the cell and the pancreas releases another hormone glucagon that transports the glucose from the cell to blood to increase the blood glucose level and decrease the metabolism of glucose in the cell.

There is a device called an insulin pump and how insulin pump works? It is a small device that does the same work that the human pancreas delivers by variable amounts of insulin when a meal is eaten. The level of blood sugar becomes high from the lack of glucose metabolism when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body doesn’t use the produced insulin

How Diabetes Mellitus is diagnosed?

Diabetes is mainly diagnosed by checking the glucose level in the blood. There are a lot of diabetes symptoms for each type where we can come to know which type of diabetes and the blood test level helps to diagnose and take care of it accordingly. The blood glucose can be tested in three ways are fasting glucose test, random glucose test, an A1c test.

  1. A fasting glucose test is to take glucose levels in the blood after the fast from the night till morning at the very minimum of 8-12 hours and take the blood on an empty stomach. The normal blood sugar level in the fast for 99 mg/dL and lower is very normal in a person and 100to 125 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes and above 126 mg/dL is high diabetes and it shows you have type 2 diabetes.
  1. Random glucose test result in the blood is a test to take any time of the day after food or any drinks and the normal range of blood glucose level is 140 mg/dL – 190 mg/dL indicates that you have prediabetes and more than 200 mg/dL level is likely developing the type 2 diabetes.
  1. A1c or HbA1c test is also called glycated hemoglobin or glycosylated hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the major protein of blood cells, a1c chart shows blood test reports and the percentage of hemoglobin that is bounded to glucose. A normal blood glucose level in the A1c test level less than 5.7% and A1c test level higher than 6.5% indicates type 2 diabetes and between these range A1c test levels are prediabetes.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are particularly 3 types of diabetes in our body that we need to take care of to prevent us from the risk factors.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the first type of chronic disease where the pancreas produces no insulin and the blood glucose level increase. Type 1 diabetes is an immune system disorder where our immune system attacks the cells that produce the pancreas which destroys the natural ability to make insulin. So, there is much need to depend on insulin for the proper function in our body. We need to take insulin twice a week to maintain stability. 10% of the total population is affected with type 1 diabetes and mostly diagnosed are at a young age when in good health and also inherited disease that affects us from our parents. Some major general symptoms of type 1 diabetes are frequent urination, thirst, fatigue, insulin shock (dizziness and sweating), and diabetic coma (loss of consciousness).   

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the second type of chronic disease where low blood sugar or glucose increases in your bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is related to insulin resistance when the body cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don’t respond to insulin and which results in not taking up the glucose from your blood, and the pancreas is in the process to make more insulin to help glucose enter into the cells. 90% of the total population is affected with type 2 diabetes and is mostly affected at an older age also frequently in younger people whereas it affects mainly with the reason of obesity and poor lifestyle, dietary and no exercise habits. Some major general symptoms of type 2 diabetes are blurred vision and fatigue.


Prediabetes is a serious health issue to consider where blood sugar levels are but not enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is as much serious as other types of diabetes and overall, more than 70% of the total population have prediabetes, it can easily affect young people and adults and most are unaware about it can damage kidneys, nerves, and other organs and can be reduced by changing the lifestyles and maintaining a moderate weight eating well-balanced prediabetes diet plan and taking a regular walk and doing the exercise can help in preventing it.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is another form of blood sugar affecting the pregnant woman. These types of diabetes are normal before pregnancy and due to the body inability of making extra insulin during pregnancy and shown up always in the middle of pregnancy and untreated diabetes can result in baby’s death before or after the birth, there are chances of developing this into type 2 diabetes by following a healthy meal plan and consultation with your doctor keeps you more to be harmful.

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